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The Critical Raw Materials Act (CRMA), proposed by the European Commission in March 2023, was adopted by the Council one year later, on 18 March 2024, after Parliament’s first reading, marking the last step in the decision-making procedure. Several years ago, the raw materials topic was a subject addressed mainly by a limited list of “connaisseurs”. This story looks completely different today, when we are referring to the Critical raw Materials Act as a strategic file. The quick adoption procedure shows nothing but the need for action translating Europe’s urge to secure a sustainable supply of critical raw materials (CRMs).

Standing at the core of the Green Deal Industrial Plan, together with the Net Zero Industry Act and the Reform of the electricity market design, the CRMA is a flagship initiative with the following specific objectives:

The bloc further consolidated this timely adoption with a set of complementary regulations and diplomatic initiatives, outlining a clear position ready to reduce reliance on third countries through export restrictions and screening for foreign direct investment across various sectors [e.g. forging strategic agreements with Chile, Greenland, Ukraine, Canada, Rwanda, and more recently Norway and Kazakhstan].

Read the official press release

Echoing the official communication, Jo Brouns, Flemish Minister for Economy, Innovation, Work, Social Economy and Agriculture declared: With the Critical Raw Materials Act we want to turn the challenges of our dependencies into strategic autonomy and an opportunity for our economy. This legislative act will boost our mining sector, enhance our recycling and processing capacities, create local and good quality jobs, and ensure that our industry is up and ready for the digital and green transitions.

The CRMs act establishes a lists of 16 ‘strategic raw materials’ (SRMs) and 34 CRMs. The list of CRMs was prepared by the Commission based on their economic importance and supply risk. SRMs were identified based on their relevance for the green and digital transition, as well as for defence and space applications. Additionally, the act introduces for the first time the concept of “Strategic projects” which would be eligible for streamlined permitting processes and easier access to financing, with provisions aiming to speed up the permit granting process for critical raw material projects.

© visual: European Commission
Author: ÉS-GÉOTHERMIE [ÉS-G]

Among European geothermal sites, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) has a great potential for a lithium (Li) production from geothermal brines due to its high concentration and the significant water flows exploited by the geothermal power plants in this area.

Despite its great potential, certain gaps in the basic knowledge of the geochemistry of the URG rocks are persisting, as there is scarce conclusive investigation carried out in the past to estimate the Li content as well as the mechanisms of Li recharge in brine. Identifying Li-rich geological units are essential to target areas with higher Li concentrations for exploration and to ensure the sustainability of this resource.

In geothermal systems, hydrothermal fluids circulate through the fractured and porous rock formations, undergoing complex interactions with the surrounding lithology. Various processes, such as leaching, dissolution, and precipitation, can occur and they can significantly influence the concentration of Li in the circulating fluids. Knowing the chemistry of the reservoir rocks could help us understand chemical reactions occurring between the hydrothermal fluids and the rocks and therefore how Li is mobilised and transported into the geothermal brine.

In the LiCORNE project, ESG is conducting detailed geochemical analysis of several core drill including granite, sandstone, and limestone from geothermal wells drilled in Northern Alsace. Researchers finalised the rock sampling task at the beginning of 2024, while the chemical measurements are expected at the end of June, current year.

AN ES-Geothermie employee sampling of granite rocks in the core shelter.

Sampling of granite rocks in the core shelter. © ES-Géothermie (ESG)

In total, 57 samples were collected and closely studied, which facilitates understanding of the chemical elements behaviour in the rock before and after the hydrothermal circulation/alteration. Comparing the results of this on-going investigation with the few data available in literature and referring to the Li concentration in URG rocks could reveal an unexpected behaviour of Li in the geothermal reservoir rocks.

After careful analysis of the chemical composition, isotopic analysis of the same rock will follow which will show more accurately potential sources of Li in the geothermal brine.

A. Fresh monzogranite sampled at 1774.5 m depth); B. Hydrothermally altered granite showing argillic alteration sampled at 2159.30 m depth

A. Fresh monzogranite sampled at 1774.5 m depth); B. Hydrothermally altered granite showing argillic alteration sampled at 2159.30 m depth. © ES-Géothermie (ESG)

 

Author: ADMIRIS [ADM]

ADMIRIS [ADM], partner in WP9 [Communication, Dissemination and Exploitation] and responsible for designing and proposing a sound business model for the LiCORNE project, successfully delivered the preliminary market and logistics analysis. This initial study marks an essential milestone in the journey towards understanding the optimal LiCORNE value chain and is the first step in a series of three reports designed to reach the project’s final business analysis.

The scope of this preliminary analysis was extensive, focusing on understanding the dynamics of the market through supply-demand analysis, pricing evaluations, and logistics assessments. Delving into these key areas allowed researchers to gain valuable insights that would facilitate the selection of the most suitable locations for the LiCORNE plant facilities. The study examined the external dynamics of lithium products, thus identifying market trends, challenges, and opportunities. This comprehensive picture of the market landscape will allow partners to pinpoint optimal plant locations that align with the project’s strategic objectives.

Main take-aways from this preliminary study:

The results of this preliminary analysis are promising, showcasing several potential plant locations that offer favourable conditions for the LiCORNE technologies within Europe. These findings pave the way for further exploration and refinement as we progress towards our ultimate goal of establishing a robust and efficient Li value chain.

In advancing the development of LiCORNE’s business case, the consortium partners remain committed to leveraging these insights to drive the success of this project that has the potential to revolutionise the lithium industry and deliver innovative solutions to meet the growing demands of the market.

© Photo: Minakryn Ruslan (under Adobe License)

Europe stands at a turning point in its journey towards establishing a competitive European value chain for batteries. Important steps have been taken in encouraging battery manufacturing plants, only to mention here the inauguration of the first gigafactory by Northvolt in Sweden. Yet, the market demand for batteries continues to surge, fueled not only by the electric vehicle sector but also by other mobility applications and stationary storage needs. The recently launched  Quarterly EU Electricity Market Report Q3 ’23 indicates over 600,000 new battery electric vehicles (BEVs) were registered in Q3 ’23, 36% higher than the corresponding quarter in 2022 and counting for 24% market share.

In response to these record demands, the European batteries research and innovation (R&I) community has been dedicated to supporting the establishment of this industrial value chain in Europe, aided by public funding, including by the European Union. Various R&I projects under the umbrella of the BATT4EU Partnership (established under Horizon Europe Programme in 2021), LiCORNE included, are sharing forces within the Cluster Hub “Production of materials for batteries from European resources” to address common challenges.

Motivated by the global geopolitical developments, the strategic role batteries play in achieving Green Deal objectives and the ever-evolving nature of battery technologies, Europe recognises the critical need for strategic alignment among stakeholders. Replacing the BATT4EU SRIA of 2021 and the Batteries Europe SRA of 2020, the 2024 SRIA outlines key strategic actions that the European Batteries R&I Community will undertake to advance collaborative research projects facilitated by the BATT4EU Partnership. Different from the previous strategic agendas, the 2024 roadmap goes beyond specific chemistries, leveraging also the power of disruptive (digital) technologies to advance research across all battery types, including material science, manufacturing and recycling processes.
The new agenda draws on the roadmaps published by Batteries Europe and Battery 2030+, compiling inputs from numerous European battery experts, offering recommendations on short, medium, and long-term objectives. It emphasises the need for coordinated action not only at the European level but also within national and regional programmes.

The 2024 SRIA points to the following six imperatives which are necessary to set the foundations and support a competitive battery value chain in Europe:

• Ensure that (BATT4EU) research results reach gigafactories and the markets, through pilots, demonstrators and improved decision making aided by digital tools.
• Increase the strategic autonomy of Europe by reducing the reliance on foreign critical raw materials by supporting local and circular supply chains and support research into different battery chemistries, including sodium-ion technologies.
• Improve battery affordability to accelerate the green transition and keep the European industry competitive by improving batteries based on materials that are more abundant and pushing for better integration into end-use applications.
• Improve the flexibility of battery manufacturing and recycling systems to reduce lock-in effects and respond quickly to changes in a rapidly developing industry.
• Implement a safe and sustainable by design framework for batteries, which plays to European strengths, and which will help reduce emissions and use of substances of concern, improve safety and allow for the integration of smart functionalities.
• Support the continuity of excellent European battery research and academic-industrial cooperation by improving access to research facilities and pilot lines, use research projects to build up a skilled workface, and by avoiding gaps in research through continued funding, which will bind talented researchers to Europe.

Download the 2024 SRIA

Interested in finding out more information about the recently released SRIA?

BATT4EU Partnership is organising a webinar on 20 March 2024, between 10:00 and 11:30 Brussels time. The aim is to present the official document and to host engaging discussions with the experts behind this publication who will explain how this document will redefine the dynamics for the European battery sector.
Register here

On Thursday, 16 November, during the 2023 edition of the Raw Materials Week, the twelve EU funded projects that constitute the Cluster Hub ‘Materials for batteries’ gathered for their annual event in Brussels.

The Cluster Hub has been initiated last year during the 7th edition of the Raw Materials Week. The main objective of the meeting was to meet and discuss the latest developments in the participating projects as well as the new challenges and opportunities discovered through the projects’ lifetime. Nader Akil, Operations Manager at PNO Innovation, inaugurated this second edition outlining the motivation behind the hub’s establishment. He underlined the positive reception and sustained interest from various stakeholders keen on joining this initiative.

Discover and/or rediscover the first edition of the Cluster Hub workshop

Co-organised by RELiEFEXCEEDENICON and RAWMINA, the event was also the opportunity to welcome the four new members of the Cluster (EXCEEDRAWMINAMETALLICO and CRM-geothermal). the workshop gathered nearly 100 organisations driving the production and the recycling of raw materials for battery applications from primary and secondary resources.

Building on the initial objective of creating an environment that could foster knowledge exchange on different approaches for the recycling and recovery for battery applications, the event focused on three major topics that depict the transversality characterising the projects: the raw materials through research and science, the roles and challenges of industry and market for raw materials, and the raw materials under the scope of sustainability, durability and social acceptance. During this annual meeting, an interactive session led by Anish Patil from TechConcepts and representing the RELiEF project had the objective of Mapping the European battery material recycling landscape – more details to be found below, in the section referring to the interactive session.

Research and science unlocking new opportunities in raw materials

The first session was moderated by Sonia Matencio from LEITAT, representing the RAWMINA project. This session had the objective of discussing the raw materials through research and science, under the scopes of mining, refining, processing as well as the battery data. Sonia introduced this topic under the scope of RAWMINA, explaining the integrated innovative pilot system for Critical Raw Materials recovery from mine waste in a circular economy context. To this end, Christophe Aucher, from LEITAT as well, highlighted the need on an open battery passport system to better reflect and account for any adaptations that might be required due to the changing regulatory landscape.

Sonia welcomed afterward Brecht Dewulf from KU LEUVEN and representing ENICON, who discussed the sustainable processing of Europe’s low grade sulphidic and lateritic Ni/Co ores and tailings into battery grade metals. The idea behind this was to show all the potential of Ni/Co resources for Europe.

Xochitl Dominguez from VITO concentrated her speech on gas-diffusion electrocrytallisation (GDEx), a crucial topic for the projects LiCORNE and RHINOCEROS she works with. GDEx is an electrochemical process of reactive precipitation of metals in solution with oxidising or reducing agents produced in-situ by the electrochemical reduction of a gas, in a gas-diffusion electrode. This was followed by Katrin Kieling from GFZ Potsdam, working there for the CRM-geothermal project and shortly explained the challenges of extracting critical raw materials from geothermal fluids. To conclude this first session, Sandra Pavón from Fraunhofer IKTS explained the demonstration of battery metals recovery from primary and secondary resources through a sustainable processing methodology in the METALLICO project.

Discover presentations from Session 1

Insights from stakeholder perspectives: Interactive session on key EU Policies and priorities

The annual meeting followed its course with an interactive session led by Anish Patil, which scrutinised stakeholders’ perspectives on the Green Deal Industrial Plan, Net Zero Industrial Act, Critical Raw Materials Act and the European Battery Regulation 2023. Mentimeter facilitated this interactive session, engaging the audience to explore how these policies intersect, complement each other, and identify critical measures and incentives for achieving their objectives.

Over 30 persons participated in the live-poll proposed, which results display the priority to be set on funding and state aid regarding ranking the four pillars of the Green Deal Industrial Plan in order of relevance (followed by skills development, conductive regulation, and open and fair trade). Another major topic regarding the stimulation of investment in net Zero technologies, the majority of answers placed the ‘enhanced skills’ as first priority, shortly followed by facilitating the access to the market.

Lastly, the participants were divided regarding the critical measures to implement in the EU to stimulate investment in building domestic capacities for extraction of critical raw materials (CRMs). Although the majority opted for ‘cutting red-tape and accelerated permitting’, approximately half of the answers evoked uncertainty, which emphasised one more time the need to engage with policy makers as external stakeholders in all projects.

Navigating the nexus: industry challenges, market dynamics, social acceptance and sustainability

This interactive workshop was followed by two sessions, which aimed at discussing the challenges and opportunities of raw materials within the frame of industry and market, as well as the social acceptance, sustainability, and durability.

Alan Gonzalez from PNO Innovation Begium, representing LiCORNE, moderated the industry part, whereas Sam Hoefman from RELiEF moderated the last session on social acceptance, sustainability, and durability. Distinguished panellists took the stage to engage in debates on various topics.

Edvarts Emerson, Production and Testing Engineer at Watt4Ever, presented his work on the benchmark depository of 2nd life use of lithium in batteries, acceptance criteria and guidelines, work developed within the RHINOCEROS project. Benjamin Wilson, representing the RESPECT Project, displayed Aalto University’s work advancing efficient, sustainable, innovative and safe battery recycling processes in the EU. Laura Kainiemi from LUT University, representing the RELiEF Project, Konstantinos Komnitsas from the Technical University of Crete (TUC), on behalf of EXCEED, and Vitor Correia from INTRAW for the CRM-geothermal project, collectively debated the role and impact of social acceptance among affected communities, the importance of triggering new dialogues on responsible mining activities, and the joint involvement of regional, national and European authorities, academia, industry partners, and citizens in shaping these initiatives.

A big thank you to all participants for this co-creative and very constructive and inspiring meeting.

Discover presentations from Session 2

Discover presentations from Session 3

Extraction of concentrates, waste cathode material, ore and tailings

Using alkaline leaching process on spodumene concentrate, the maximum extraction of Li achieved thus far reached 75%. The leachate transformation, even after the filtration step, hinders the sample analysis and further processing. To overcome this challenge, upcoming experiments will explore  elevated temperatures, diverse additives, and further investigate the chemical precipitation process.

During the advanced solvometallurgy applied on spodumene concentrate, the research team at TECNALIA reported high Li leaching yields (>95%). Their future work will focus on the further optimisation of the operational conditions, more appropriate for the anticipated scalability phases of the process. On the other hand, solvometallurgical tests carried on waste cathode material achieved high leaching yields for all target elements (Li, Co, Ni, Mn) using mild operational parameters.

After the first experiments engaging reactive milling and aqueous leaching [treated with aluminium- (Al) and calcium (Ca) – salts] on waste cathode material, researchers at KIT reported close to 31% Li recovery rate. Samples supplied by UMICORE were leached under different conditions to extract Li – available in the form of Li carbonate [LiCO3], and further subjected to purifications processes employing various reducing agents. Future efforts for this particular task will focus on adjusting leaching temperatures, establishing an optimal purification process, and evaluating Li recoverability in both Al and Ca systems.

Separation and purification of Li from solutions

Anticipating future upscaling phases, researchers at VITO, working on the Li-sieve adsorption and desorption from aqueous leachates, shaped the lithium-titanium-oxide (LTO) adsorbents into spheres, which enabled dynamic testing. The team is currently optimising the flow rates for adsorption and desorption to model the optimal conditions for upcoming processes. While initial tests utilised synthetic Li solutions, upcoming research will extend to purification processes for spodumene leachates.

In the same work package, TECNALIA performed experiments using different organic solvents for the liquid/liquid (L/L) extraction from brines showing promising Li yields in the range of 40-60%.

Within the same work package, EnBW scientific team has been working on designing an eco-friendly Li-desorption process from brines, focusing on the development of novel synthesis for Mn-based adsorbent material. Notably, the successful upscaling of the synthesis process from 2,5g to 200g marks a significant achievement in sustainable material synthesis.

Finally, the last task of WP5 – Electrode-based Li adsorption and desorption from brines, conducted by KIT, presented the conclusions of their research work carried during the last six months, which includes a 4-step process. Their work has been focusing recently on the optimisation of the electrode pre-treatment, the establishment of the current densities and the reduction of the Na contaminations. Despite high Li selectivity rates obtained thus far, their work in the upcoming months will centre around optimising the recovery efficiency and the selectivity. Future experiments will test different thermal operating conditions (40°, 60°, 80°), but will also attempt to scale-up the process.

Recovery as battery-grade chemicals

In the final technical work package, SINTEF scientists are pioneering a two-step process which involves in a primary phase selective chlorination by converting insoluble oxides to soluble chlorides; this is followed by a second step – electrolysis of the soluble chlorides extracting the target elements. After conducting different chlorination experiments, researchers emphasised the importance of time and the processing duration, confirming over 65% Li recovery rate. With promising results, their focus pivots towards the second step – electrolysis.

Read the next article for a comprehensive overview of the meeting.

Marking the project’s first anniversary, the LiCORNE partners gathered in sunny city of Athens to draw the line and brief on the progress achieved thus far. The meeting was hosted by the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and it unfolded over two days, including also a visit of the NTUA mineralogical museum and its metallurgy laboratory facilities.

Press the “play” button below to watch snippets of the 1-year consortium meeting and interviews with various partners

Supply and characterisation of feedstock

Starting with work package (WP) 2, partners from EnBW presented the characteristics of the Bruchsal geothermal reservoir, located at the eastern edge of Upper Rhine Valley. EnBW highlighted that geothermal brines in the Upper Rhine Valley are recognised for their relatively high lithium (Li) concentrations. Additionally, the region displays an extension structure striking in the NNE-SSW direction, with a length of around 300 km and a width of up to 40 km. In this area, the deep geothermal fluids utilised for geothermal applications exhibit a maximum Li concentration ranging from 163 to 190 mg/L (Sanjuan et al., 2016). The highest Li concentration was detected in the hydrothermal alteration zone of Lower Buntsandstein.

In the forthcoming months, new samples are prepared for delivery to research partners: geothermal and continental brines, but also Li-phosphate samples, a new Li-mica concentrate and synthetic brine solutions. Upcoming research will mainly focus on the geochemical analysis of rock samples from the reservoirs.

Beneficiation and physico-chemical transformation of concentrates

In the mining industry or extractive metallurgy, beneficiation is any process which removes the gangue minerals from ore to produce a higher-grade product, and a waste stream – which, despite the lack of valuable materials, needs to be sustainably treated. In charge of the beneficiation step, TU Delft already presented in M12 videos of the operational opto-magnetically-induced sorting lab setup to process crushed spodumene ore. This proof of concept aims to separate the Li-rich fractions of the ore before reaching the metallurgical processes. This preliminary step helps improve efficiencies and decrease cost in processes downstream.

Researchers at NTUA, working on the development of a calcination technology working at lower temperatures, presented the first results of their investigations using various additive combinations and leaching experiments studying the effect of temperature, time and leaching agents. Tests showed that the use of additives has the potential to maintain the calcination operating temperature of spodumene at low temperatures compared to conventional routes. Moreover, researchers achieved over 92% Li extraction during various leaching experiments conducted so far. Recognising the environmental footprint associated with the conventional routes used for Li extraction, NTUA research team will continue experimenting with new additives in order to develop a new technology that is more environmentally sustainable and equally more competitive.

Working with spodumene samples, TECNALIA researchers have been working on the ball milling-assisted chemical transformation, testing the use of various additives and experimenting with different thermal treatments. Their upcoming work will focus on optimising the ball milling process to obtain materials with similar leaching properties but being produced with less intense thermal processes.

Read the next article for a complete overview of all the work packages.

Within the collaborative framework of the Cluster Hub “Production of raw materials for batteries from European resources”, the LiCORNE consortium members had the opportunity to encounter another EU-funded initiative – CRM-geothermal project.

Coordinated by Katrin Kieling (GFZ Potsdam), the CRM-geothermal project shares a mission akin to LiCORNE’s – to alleviate Europe’s need of critical raw materials (CRMs), thus contributing to the energy and digital transition. Attending online, the project coordinator introduced the project’s concept, which focuses on innovative technologies that leverage the combined extraction of CRMs and energy from geothermal fluids. The coordinator emphasised various advantages of the combined heat/electricity extraction, including maximising returns of investment, avoiding additional land occupancy, minimising environmental impact often associated with mining activities.

A distinctive feature of CRM-geothermal is its contribution to the CRMs community through the establishment of the CRM-geothermal Fluid Atlas for Europe and East Africa. This initiative brings innovative aspects such as an AI-based Simulation Tool, utilizing artificial intelligence and machine learning tools to analyse extensive datasets collected over time.

Much like LiCORNE, CRM-geothermal sets a clear commitment to contribute to the domestic CRM supply chain, thus diminishing reliance on imported resources and mitigating risks tied to market and political instabilities. Additionally, it promotes more trustworthy and ethical supply chains for certain CRMs, balancing public resistance to raw material extraction – much needed due to the growing demand for these resources.

Learn more about CRM-geothermal here

Discover the upcoming Cluster Hub annual workshop here.

The most recent political events and regulatory context have highlighted on several occasions a growing demand for lithium (Li), primarily fuelled by the increasing use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The concentration of the largest mining sites for Li outside of Europe leads to a strong dependence on third countries, which can pose economic and strategic challenges for the EU. To mitigate the resources scarcity, the EU has implemented regulations promoting sustainable battery practices, and is actively exploring diversified domestic resources of Li, such as the geothermal brines located in the Rhine Graben region.

Researchers at Fraunhofer ICT recently attended the German Geothermal Conference in Essen (Germany), where they submitted a scientific poster that portrays the characteristics of the Li resources identified in the geothermal brines in the Rhine Graben region and the challenges raised by the Li extraction. Due to the high concentration of salt load, the selective separation of Li and sodium (Na) remains the primary challenge to solve. Within the LiCORNE project, researchers are testing a manganese-based (Mn-based) adsorption setup to provide Li enriched solutions from geothermal brines. Despite recent developments, impurities persist, and additional separation steps are required.

Lithium Extraction from geothermal brine of the Rhine basin by electrophoresis

During the German Geothermal Conference, the research team at Fraunhofer ICT presented the free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) used for the selective separation of Li and Na ions. This separation relies on the ions’ migration velocity in an electrified field, being significantly influenced by their charge, size and hydrate shell.

The main advantage of the FFE lies in its capacity to prevent mixing of individual streams with the background eluent, allowing separate collection of the individual streams at the end of the chamber.  Additional benefits of the FFE:

Testing the method with different parameters, various concentrations of the sample solution and altering the eluent solution, researchers reported a complete separation of Li and Na ions by FFE, with over 80% separation efficiency. Future efforts will focus on testing the actual desorption solutions, optimizing throughput, scaling up, and reducing costs.

Download the original poster, available in German, here

Late September 2023, ministers, industry leaders, investors, international organisations and civil society convened at IEA (International Energy Agency) headquarters for first-of-its-kind summit to discuss the future of critical minerals.

Being the first international IEA Critical Minerals and Clean Energy Summit, the event applauded governments’ enthusiasm to deploy the clean energy transition, as well as their quick actions to ensure secure and sustainable supplies of critical minerals. With a concerning scenario portraying surging demand of minerals such as lithium, cobalt, nickel and copper, driven by the deployment of clean energy technologies, the first international summit identified six key actions to ensure secure, sustainable and reliable supplies of critical materials:

  1. Accelerate progress towards diversified minerals supplies.
  2. Unlock the power of technology and recycling, setting priorities on sustainable extraction and processing technologies and to increase the recycling rates covering all potential streams: e-waste, industry scrap, end-of-life batteries, wind turbines and permanent magnets.
  3. Promote transparency in markets: “The participants emphasised the need to promote transparent markets that facilitate new investments by reinforcing due diligence and traceability practices.”
  4. Enhance the availability of reliable information, with enhances focus on producing public up-to-date data, facilitating decision-making processes among various stakeholders.
  5. Create incentives for sustainable and responsible practices: “rewarding environmental, social and governance (ESG) efforts and speeding up approvals of new facilities without loosening legal and regulatory protections.”
  6. Foster international collaboration.

The majority of these strategic actions are already included in the core of the LiCORNE project. Launched in October 2022, LiCORNE is designed to establish the first European Lithium complete supply chain. Its main objective is to increase the processing and the refining capacity for battery-grade chemicals from resources available in Europe: ores, brines, tailings and off-specification battery cathode materials (waste).

With increased interest for this first international summit, the IEA will hold a Ministerial Meeting next year, in February, which will provide countries with a platform to evaluate the significance of critical minerals in the global energy security and climate action. Based on shared experiences and information, the event will emphasise transparent and resilient supply chain strategies, and unveil the next phase of the IEA Voluntary Critical Mineral Security Programme.

Photo © IEA